A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment. The specific input could be light, heat, motion, moisture, pressure, or any one of a great number of other environmental phenomena. The output is generally a signal that is converted to human-readable display at the sensor location or transmitted electronically over a network for reading or further processing.
1 : Proximity Sensor
A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors. For example, a capacitive proximity sensor or photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target; an inductive proximity sensor always requires a metal target.
The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined “nominal range”. Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a graduated detection distance. Some know these processes as “thermosensation”. Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between the sensor and the sensed object.
2 : Accelerometer Sensor
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration. Proper acceleration, being the acceleration (or rate of change of velocity) of a body in its own instantaneous rest frame, is not the same as coordinate acceleration, being the acceleration in a fixed coordinate system.
For example, an accelerometer at rest on the surface of the Earth will measure an acceleration due to Earth’s gravity, straight upwards (by definition) of g ≈ 9.81 m/s2. By contrast, accelerometers in free fall (falling toward the center of the Earth at a rate of about 9.81 m/s2) will measure zero.
Highly sensitive accelerometers are components of inertial navigation systems for aircraft and missiles. Accelerometers are used in tablet computers and digital cameras so that images on screens are always displayed upright. Accelerometers are used in drones for flight stabilisation.
3 : Compass Sensor
The digital compass that’s usually based on a sensor called the magnetometer and provides mobile phones with a simple orientation in relation to the Earth’s magnetic field. As a result, your phone always knows which way is North so it can auto rotate your digital maps depending on your physical orientation.
4 : Gyroscope Sensor
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, “circle” and σκοπέω skopéō, “to look”) is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity. It is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation by itself. When rotating, the orientation of this axis is unaffected by tilting or rotation of the mounting, according to the conservation of angular momentum.
Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist, such as the microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscopes found in electronic devices, solid-state ring lasers, fibre optic gyroscopes, and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope.
Applications of gyroscopes include inertial navigation systems, such as in the Hubble telescope, or inside the steel hull of a submerged submarine. Due to their precision, gyroscopes are also used in gyrotheodolites to maintain direction in tunnel mining. Gyroscopes can be used to construct gyrocompasses, which complement or replace magnetic compasses (in ships, aircraft and spacecraft, vehicles in general), to assist in stability (bicycles, motorcycles, and ships) or be used as part of an inertial guidance system.
5 : Light Sensor
A Light Sensor is something that a robot can use to detect the current ambient light level – i.e. how bright/dark it is. There are a range of different types of light sensors, including ‘Photoresistors’, ‘Photodiodes’, and ‘Phototransistors’.
6 : GPS (Global Positioning System)
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. GPS sensors are receivers with antennas that use a satellite-based navigation system with a network of 24 satellites in orbit around the earth to provide position, velocity, and timing information.
7 : Heart Rate Sensor
The heart rate sensor measures your heart rate in Beats per Minute using an optical LED light source and an LED light sensor. The light shines through your skin, and the sensor measures the amount of light that reflects back. The light reflections will vary as blood pulses under your skin past the light. The variations in the light reflections are interpreted as heartbeats.
8 : Barometer Sensor
the barometer can be utilized to provide ‘floors climbed’ information to a phones ‘health’ app.
With the advent of more accurate indoor navigation, the barometer can assist in determine what floor a user is on within an airport for example.
9 : Magnetometer Sensor
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location. A compass is a simple type of magnetometer, one that measures the direction of an ambient magnetic field.
Magnetometers are widely used for measuring the Earth’s magnetic field and in geophysical surveys to detect magnetic anomalies of various types. They are also used in the military to detect submarines. Consequently, some countries, such as the United States, Canada and Australia, classify the more sensitive magnetometers as military technology, and control their distribution.
Magnetometers can be used as metal detectors: they can detect only magnetic (ferrous) metals, but can detect such metals at a much larger depth than conventional metal detectors; they are capable of detecting large objects, such as cars, at tens of metres, while a metal detector’s range is rarely more than 2 metres.
10 : Infrared Sensor
An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certain characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting infrared radiation. Infrared sensors are also capable of measuring the heat being emitted by an object and detecting motion.
Infrared waves are not visible to the human eye. In the electromagnetic spectrum, infrared radiation can be found between the visible and microwave regions. The infrared waves typically have wavelengths between 0.75 and 1000µm.
11 : Biometric Sensor
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations. It refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication (or realistic authentication) is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. Biometric identifiers are often categorized as physiological versus behavioral characteristics. Physiological characteristics are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, palm veins, face recognition, DNA, palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent. Behavioral characteristics are related to the pattern of behavior of a person, including but not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics to describe the latter class of biometrics.
More traditional means of access control include token-based identification systems, such as a driver’s license or passport, and knowledge-based identification systems, such as a password or personal identification number. Since biometric identifiers are unique to individuals, they are more reliable in verifying identity than token and knowledge-based methods; however, the collection of biometric identifiers raises privacy concerns about the ultimate use of this information.
And A Lots Of Sensors That Is Used In Our Daily Life To Complete The Work Very Faster And Smoother.